Remember that each generation doubles the number of ancestors. It's easy to get lost if you don't plan ahead for your trip. Focus on one or two families. The others will still be there when you get to them.
FEDERAL Land States were created from public domain, land the United States bought or acquired. The land was divided into territories as it became populated. Survey is done according to the rectangular system.
Don't assume that widow in earlier census records means her husband is deceased. It could mean that they were divorced.
Surnames began in Europe about the 11th century. They developed as trade increased. The four basic groups of surnames are the patronymic (based on the father's name), landscape features or place names, action or nicknames, and occupational or office names.
X chromosome: One of the two sex chromosomes, X and Y. The X chromosome is passed down from mother to child. X is the sex chromosome that is present in both sexes, singly in males and doubly in females.