The Villages Genealogical Society
Facts, Tips & Tricks
 
Tips to help you discover and trace your genealogy.
 
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Listings: 1 to 11 of 11
1.  
DNA: (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) The chemical name for the molecule that carries genetic instructions in all living things. The DNA molecule consists of two strands that wind around each other to form a shape known as the double helix.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
2.  
Chromosome: An organized package of DNA found in the nucleus of the cell. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. 22 numbered chromosomes, called autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes X and Y.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
3.  
Y chromosome: One of the two sex chromosomes, X and Y. The Y chromosome passes down from father to son. Females do not receive it. As the Y chromosome is passed on through the paternal line, it is valuable for surname based genealogy studies.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
4.  
X chromosome: One of the two sex chromosomes, X and Y. The X chromosome is passed down from mother to child. X is the sex chromosome that is present in both sexes, singly in males and doubly in females.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
5.  
Autosomal DNA (atDNA) is DNA from one of our chromosomes located in the cell nucleus. It generally excludes the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
6.  
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material found in mitochondria. It is passed down from females to both sons and daughters, but sons do not pass down their mother’s mtDNA to their children.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
7.  
Nuclear DNA is the genetic code that is found inside of the cell’s nucleus. Our autosomal and sex chromosomes are nuclear DNA.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
8.  
A centiMorgan (cM) is a measurement of how likely a segment of DNA is to recombine from one generation to the next. A single centiMorgan is considered equivalent to a 1% (1/100) chance that a segment of DNA will crossover or recombine within one generation.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
9.  
Short Tandem Repeat (STR): A short DNA motif (pattern) repeated in tandem. ATGC repeated eleven times would give the marker a value or allele of 11.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
10.  
DNA Sequencing is a laboratory technique used to determine the exact sequence of bases (A,C,G and T) in a DNA molecule. The technology of DNA sequencing was made faster and less expensive as a part of the Human Genome Project.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016
11.  
The are dozens of terms related to DNA technology. Refer to our "Resources" menu item for a complete list.
Last Updated: 22 March 2016