The Villages Genealogical Society
Facts, Tips & Tricks
Tips to help you discover and trace your genealogy.
If you have a category or a tip recommendation, please let us know . . .
Filter by Category:
Return to Category List
Listings Per Page: 

Listings: 1 to 10 of 10
DNA: (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) The chemical name for the molecule that carries genetic instructions in all living things. The DNA molecule consists of two strands that wind around each other to form a shape known as the double helix.
Chromosome: An organized package of DNA found in the nucleus of the cell. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. 22 numbered chromosomes, called autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes X and Y.
Y chromosome: One of the two sex chromosomes, X and Y. The Y chromosome passes down from father to son. Females do not receive it. As the Y chromosome is passed on through the paternal line, it is valuable for surname based genealogy studies.
X chromosome: One of the two sex chromosomes, X and Y. The X chromosome is passed down from mother to child. X is the sex chromosome that is present in both sexes, singly in males and doubly in females.
Autosomal DNA (atDNA) is DNA from one of our chromosomes located in the cell nucleus. It generally excludes the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material found in mitochondria. It is passed down from females to both sons and daughters, but sons do not pass down their mother’s mtDNA to their children.
Nuclear DNA is the genetic code that is found inside of the cell’s nucleus. Our autosomal and sex chromosomes are nuclear DNA.
A centiMorgan (cM) is a measurement of how likely a segment of DNA is to recombine from one generation to the next. A single centiMorgan is considered equivalent to a 1% (1/100) chance that a segment of DNA will crossover or recombine within one generation.
Short Tandem Repeat (STR): A short DNA motif (pattern) repeated in tandem. ATGC repeated eleven times would give the marker a value or allele of 11.
DNA Sequencing is a laboratory technique used to determine the exact sequence of bases (A,C,G and T) in a DNA molecule. The technology of DNA sequencing was made faster and less expensive as a part of the Human Genome Project.